1. Wildlife Monitoring

Although Ulu Kalumpang and Mt Wullersdorf FRs have been logged over and encroached, the residual forests provide habitat to support viable populations of numerous wildlife species in the forest reserve that connects to Tawau Hills Park to form an important conservation area. Through previous surveys conducted and recorded by various organizations and government departments, there is an estimated 180 species of birds present in the Ulu Kalumpang area, which makes it an important site for lowland forest species in Sabah, especially for hornbills (six species) and pheasants. This reserve is also a safe haven for the Orang Utan whose numbers are around 150 individuals within Ulu Kalumpang, as well, the endangered Bornean Pygmy Elephant and Banteng are found roaming in this part of Sabah. Other animals prevalent to the area include various types of deer, wild boars and several species of monkeys such as the Bornean Gibbon, Long-tail and Short-tail Macaques and the Redleaf Monkey.

Lesser mouse deerWildlife monitoring is mostly based on periodic aerial surveys of Orang Utans as well as camera trapping that are conducted periodically in all forest reserves according to Procedure 06 (Monitoring). In addition it is recommended that the SFD staff record types of wildlife observed, date, place observed and quantity in formal records and monthly reporting whenever there is an opportunistic sighting in all conservation forest reserves. Opportunistic sighting data should be summarized and reported annually.

There are four (04) methods used for wildlife monitoring in Ulu Kalumpang-Wullersdorf Sustainable Forest Management (UKW SFM) Project area:

  Year 2016 Year 2017
1 Camera Trap Camera Trap
2 Recce Walk Recce Walk
3 Opportunistic Sighting Opportunistic Sighting
4 Hornbill Observation Hornbill Observation

Click thumbnails to view larger photos
Bearded pig
1. Bearded pig (Sus barbatus)
Bearded pig
2. Bearded pig (Sus barbatus)
Great argus
3. Great Argus (Argusianus argus)
Lesser mouse deer
4. Lesser mousedeer (Tragulus javanicus)
Moon rat
5. Moon rat (Echinosorex gymura)
Pig-tailed macaque
6. Pig-tailed macaque (Macaca nemestrina)
Sambar deer
7. Sambar deer (Cervus unicolor)

Spotted pig tail macaque
8. Spotted pig tail macaque

9. Banteng

Borneo pygmy elephant - Elephas maximus (Landau)

Crested Fireback

Wild Pig (Sus Barbatus)

Samba Deer (Cervus unicolor)

Pgmy Elephant (Elephas maximus)

Red Giant Flying Squirrel (Petaurista petaurista)

Pig Tailed Macaque-macaca Nemestrina

Sambar Deer-Cervus Unicolor

Ayam hutan (Crested fireback).

Bornean yellow muntjac (Muntiacus atherodes)

Pig tailed macaque (Macaca nemestrina)

Samba deer (Cervus unicolor)

Slow loris (Nvcticebus coucang)

2. Silviculture Monitoring

Silviculture Tending Operation

Silvicultural treatment is a planned activity within the FCMP aimed at treating forest areas. Silvicultural treatment is performed to improve the forest stand and thus, improving the overall quality of this forest and can promote better forest biodiversity as well as ecological and environmental benefits. Silvicultural treatments are carried out to liberate standing trees (regardless of species) and to release the young regeneration of trees by removing and eradicating competing climbers and climbing bamboo that endanger the survival of the regeneration

Table 2: Treated Area (2012 - 2017)
No Forest Reserve Location / Compartment Treated Area (Ha)
1 HS Madai Baturong Binuang 450
2 HS Kalumpang VJR 107D Sapang 300
3 HS Ulu Kalumpang Sg. Mantri 125
4 HS Mt. Wullersdorf Checkpoint 125
5 HS Ulu Kalumpang CPT 30, 31, 41, 42, 46 & 47 3,750
6 HS Mt. Wullersdorf CPT 103, 104, 105, 106 & 106A 2,392
Total 7,142

Site handover to the Sentiasa Maju Contractor & Disamodra Enterprise.

Silviculture workers

View from the air silviculture treatment at Mt.Wullersdorf FR and Ulu Kalumpang FR

Map 1. Map of Silviculture Operational in 2017



The long term goal for management in this project area is to restore the functioning capacity of the forest for water production, retention and usage. The immediate objectives are to seal off and restore the forest reserves from further encroachments which means the flushing out all illegal occupation phase by phase, to rehabilitate degraded and encroached areas with indigenous tree species, to provide long-term solutions to the issue of community settlements within the protected area and to maintain the forest through carbon financing and other ecosystem services mechanism.

Planting seedlingsIntensive forest rehabilitation aims to restore the encroached areas by the removal of the oil palm and replacing with indigenous species. This will accelerate natural vegetation regeneration in order to re-establish a healthy forest ecosystem in the reserve whilst caring for the water catchment area. For this to be realized, the Sabah Forestry Department had appointed the best contractor to implement the restoration programme which was started since 2007. Planted with various species such as Kapur Paji (Dryobalanops lanceolata), Kapur Gumpait (Dryobalanops keithii), Seraya Majau (Shorea leptocladus) and fast growing species which is Sentang (Azadirachta excelsa), Angsana (Pterocarpus indicus), Batai (Paraserianthes falcataria), some Eucalypts as a trail, Laran (Neolamarckia cadamba), Binuang (Octomeles sumatrana), Ketapang (Terminalia catappa), Pulai (Alstonia spp.), Bayur (Pterospermum javanicum), by the Forestry Department.


Shorea leptocladus

Table 2. Planted Area (2008-2017)
No. Forest Reserve Location Area Planted (ha)
1. HS Ulu Kalumpang Sg. Mantri 600
2. HS Ulu Kalumpang Cenderamata / Landau 600
3. HS Kalumpang VJR107C Mt. Forbes & Mt. Sangster 119.80
4. HS Mt. Wullersdorf Balung 410
5. HS Kalumpang VJR107D Sapang 40
6. HS Madai Baturong VJR107F Binuang 7
TOTAL : 1,776.80

Permanent Sample Plot in Ulu Kalumpang-Wullersdorf SFM

Photo Gallery

Forest Restoration
Planting Activities Planted Trees Nursery