High Conservation Values (HCV)
in Ulu Segama-Malua Sustainable Forest Management Project

The project area has experienced series of human-induced disturbances in the past, namely timber extraction, encroachment and forest fire, resulting various level of vegetation quality. Over 80 % of USM landscape is classified as secondary vegetation and with greater proportion classified as late secondary forest. The remaining climax vegetation are largely active regenerating forests, identified as high conservation value forest ecosystem (HCV 3) and harbour threatened and endemic species (HCV 1). Fortunately, USM being totally protected forest (HCV 1), even though largely dominated with secondary forest trees, considered as important forest landscape that able to provide food and shelters for many high conservation value wildlife species (HCV 1) and some of them are wide-ranging species that sketch periodic migratory route from the project area to central part of Sabah along the continuous forest cover landscapes (HCV 2). Important ecosystem services, especially water source for community livelihood and the related catchments have been identified (HCV 4). Though, there is no relevant basic need claim by neighboring communities, the ancient burial site in Tempadung Cave is acknowledged as important cultural value for the local community of Kg Opak (HCV 6).

Five HCV attributes were identified that characterized the Ulu Segama-Malua Sustainable Forest Management Project (USM SFMP) as follows:

  1. HCV 1 (Species Diversity);
  2. HCV 2 (Landscape Level Forest);
  3. HCV 3 (Ecosystem and Habitats);
  4. HCV 4 (Ecosystem Services); and
  5. HCV 6 (Cultural Identity of Local Communities)

All identified HCV areas in USM were emphasize by the team that forest fire, clearing forest and forest simplification are the highest threats to their well-being. Wildlife poaching and illegal harvesting of timber or plants are suggested to be intermediate threats. In relation to this, protection of biodiversity, ecosystem and overall landscape are the important measures to be undertaken by USM management team.

Each management prescriptions will have its own specific set of indicators to determine if it is being carried out appropriately and effectively. Monitoring is necessary for an adaptive management approach and the successful implementation of HCVA management. Applicable monitoring methods for the conservation targets are shown the following table:

HCV Element




Frequency of evaluation

HCV 1, HCV 2, HCV 3, HCV 4 & HCV 6 Protection of FMU from forest fire, encroachment and wildlife poaching Reduction of encroachment, forest fire and wildlife poaching incidences Strategic surveillance and patrolling on high risk area Annually
Increase management team competency through training Annually
HCV 1 Threatened and endemic flora Continuous presence of selected/monitored species and if possible demonstrate population density remains consistent or increase Establish long-term ecological research plots or permanent sample plots to monitor changes in species assemblages. Every 3 years