What is CAMP FMU10?
Malaysia is a party and signatory to the United Nation Convention on Biological Diversity (UNCBD), the United Nation Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), the Convention on Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) and the promotion of sustainable forest management (SFM) under the International Tropical Timber Agreement (ITTA). She is also a member and signatory to the Ramsar Convention that advocated the wise use of wetlands ecosystem in the country. Endorsement of all of these treaties was reflected through the inclusion of these global agenda in formulating the Malaysian's five (5) year development policy and programmed in the past two (2) decades.
Despite the separation of responsibilities listed in the Ninth (9th) schedule of the Federal Constitution, Sabah, being a member state in the Malaysian Federation, subscribes to the nation's commitments. During the past decade, relevant mechanisms as well as legislations regarding protection, conservation and sustainable use were introduced into the State's administration and management of its resources.
Conservation of biological diversity in the natural tropical forests is dependent upon maintaining essential functional components of ecosystems while allowing for natural dynamic change to occur. It should be recognized that our present level of knowledge is still inadequate to enable all the components of tropical forest ecosystems to be determined with certainty. The greater the uncertainty over the future - whether environmental changes or markets for wood and non-wood products - the greater the potential value of conserving biological diversity and habitat's protection.
Forest management in Sabah deals with the overall administrative, economic, legal, social, technical and scientific aspects related to natural and planted forests. It implies various degrees of deliberate human intervention, ranging from actions aimed, at safeguarding and maintaining the forest ecosystem and its functions, to favouring specific socially or economically valuable species or groups of species for the improved production of goods and services. For example, in forest harvesting, the Sabah Forestry Department (SFD) practiced selective felling aimed at conserving as wide a range of species as possible3. SFM as implemented currently by SFD will ensure that the values derived from the forest biodiversity meet the current needs while at the same time ensuring their continued availability and contribution to the long-term development needs.
Sustainable Forest Management
The Forest Enactment (1968) and Forest Rules 1969 legislated by the State Assembly, are the two empowering and regulatory instruments for the management and administration of various Forest Reserves (FRs). The state's Forest Policy on the other hand sets the forest management direction.
Forest management practices are of crucial importance in relation to nature and forest conservation as they are likely to reduce bio-diversity or change species composition relative to pre – intervention conditions. SFM therefore aims for sustained yields of multiple products and services from the forest. It offers the opportunity of maintaining the forests by producing timber that sustains the environmental conditions and biodiversity at the same time.
It is an effective compromise between the desire of conserving species as well as habitats and the need to use the forest resources to generate wealth and employment.
Under Section 5 of the Forest Enactment 1968, seven (7) classes of forest reserves (FRs) covering a total area of 3,606,646.57 ha had been gazetted throughout the state. Table 1 specifies the various Classes of Forest Reserves that had been gazetted throughout the state. The major bulk of the forest areas in the state fall under the Class II, meant for commercial usage of its timber resources.
|Table 1: Classes of Forest Reserves Established Under the Forest Enactment 1968|
|Class Category||Area (Ha)||Function|
|Class I Protection Forest||466,756.95||Maintenance of forest essential on climatic or physical grounds|
|Class II Commercial Forest||2,550,022.00||For the supply of timber and other produce to meet the general demands of trade|
|Class III Domestic Forest||6,919.00||For the supply of timber and other produce for local consumption|
|Class IV Amenity Forest||16,358.77||For local amenity and arboretum work|
|Class V Mangrove Forest||326,487.12||For the supply of mangrove timber or other produce to meet the general demands of trade|
|Class VI Virgin Jungle Reserve||103,037.73||For forest research purpose|
|Class VII Wildlife Reserve||137,065.00||For the protection of wildlife|
Forest Management Units (FMU)
For the purpose of SFM implementation, the State of Sabah has been divided into 27 Forest Management Units (FMU). Except for two (2) FMUs that are devoid of any Class II (Commercial) FRs, each FMU contains at least one Class II FRs and some other Non - Class II FRs described above. The actual acreage of the FMU differs from area to area; however, they range from 50,000 ha to over 150,000 ha. On the average, the size of these FMU is about 100,000 ha.
The Sabah state government has entered into the Sustainable Forest Management License Agreement (SFMLA) with various companies in September 1997 for the implementation of SFM in the state. Each of these agreements was in force for a period of 100 years covering specific FMU.The SFMLA explicitly defined the requirements as well as guidelines of SFM practices to be adhered to by the licensee, such as the preparation of a Forest Management Plan (FMP), Forest
Plantation Development Plan, Forest Fire Management Plan and an Annual Management Plan.Annual compliance auditing by SFD determined the progress of SFM activities by each Licensee. To date there are four (4) FMUs that are managed by the SFD. The remaining 21 FMUs are licensed out to the various SFMLA License holders.
In the FMP, the forest areas should be zoned according to relevant forest functions, viz conservation zone, production zone, community forestry and ecotourism as prescribed under the SFMLA and the Malaysian Criteria and Indicators (MC&I). The criteria use for the conservation zone in an FMU is largely based on the topographic features of slopes above 25 degrees. It could also be based on special biodiversity features both for faunal and floristic conservations.
Forest Management Unit 10 (Tambunan)
This particular FMU is bordered by three (3) State's administrative Districts and a sub District namely Tambunan on the west, Keningau on the south, Ranau on the north and Sook on the east (Figure 1).
Since August 2010, the Trusmadi Forest Reserve with the total area of 74,736 ha formerly gazetted under Class II Forest Reserve was re-gazetted into a class I Forest Reserve. At the same time another piece of State Land area adjacent to this Forest Reserve with area of 1068 ha was also converted area was name as Sg. Kiluyu Forest Reserve . This area is subsequently included as part of the FMU10 areas, thus the total area of FMU10 (Tambunan) is now 75,801 ha. Out of this total area of 75,801 ha the Keningau Forestry District administered 47,772 ha while the remaining 28,029 ha are within the Tambunan Forestry District jurisdiction. Mount Trusmadi, the second highest mountain in Malaysia at 2642m (8669 ft) second only to the famous Mount Kinabalu, lies within the FMU10.
This FMU 10 is delineated wholly as a Conservation area with certain non-conservation usage as described under the management zones.
The Trusmadi FR, named after Mount Trus Madi is located in central Sabah, between longitude 116o 34' E and 117o 01' E and latitude 5o 27'N and 5o 52'N. It was initially gazettes in 1962 covering a total area of 75,692 ha. It was regazetted in 1984 and classified as a Class II FR covering an extended area of 184,527 ha. Another regazettement was done in 1992 and it covers the current total area of 175,897 ha. The other part of the Trus Madi FR, covering an area of 101,161 ha, lies within the FMU No. 5, which comes under the Ranau Forestry District. The FMU No.5 was licensed to Anika Desiran Sdn Bhd under the SFMLA in 1997.
Quick facts on FMU10:
- Initially gazetted in 1962 and regazetted in 1984 and 1992 respectively
- Bordered by three (3) State's administrative Districts and a sub District namely Tambunan on the west, Keningau on the south, Ranau on the north and Sook on the east
- Home of the second tallest mountain in Malaysia